Howard X. Lin

Associate faculty


Emerging Markets

International Joint Ventures

Immigrant/Transnational Entrepreneurship


Dr. Howard X. Lin is a professor of International Business & Entrepreneurship and director of the Canada-China Institute for Business & Development at Toronto Metropolitan University. He was former chair of the Academy of International Business’ Canada Chapter and vice president (research) of the Canadian Council for Small Business & Entrepreneurship.

He presently serves as the Editor in Chief of the Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship. His current research is focused on immigrant and Indigenous entrepreneurship.



Howard worked at the Bank of China’s headquarters in Beijing prior to pursuing his graduate studies in the U.S. He served as the director of International Business Assistance at the Center for International Trade Development, a USDA sponsored regional center for promoting international business. He is the founder of the Canadian Entrepreneurship and Innovation Platform, a non-profit organization that promotes entrepreneurship among new immigrants. 

Since 2007, he's taught as a professor in the Ted Rogers School of Management at Toronto Metropolitan University. Between 2002 to 2006 he taught as an associate professor in the Odette School of Business at the University of Windsor. 

Memberships and Committees

Howard has been a member of several organizations, including:

  • International Research Board, Journal of Small Business Management (2010-current)
  • Vice President (research), Canadian Council for Small Business and Entrepreneurship (2008-2020)
  • Chair, Academy of International Business Canada Chapter (2006-2016)
  • Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (Canada) (2017-current)


PhD in Marketing/International Business

Oklahoma State University, USA

Master of Arts in Economics

Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, China

Bachelor of Arts in Philosophy/Political Science

Minzu University, China


Ryerson Scholarship, Research & Creativity Award

Toronto Metropolitan University

Ontario Volunteer Award

Ontario Minister of Immigration and Settlement

Awards for Excellence in Scholarship, Research & Creative Activity

University of Windsor

Recognition for Contributions to Employment Equity

University of Windsor

Research Excellence Award

University of Windsor


Research interest

Entrepreneurship among Ethnic Minorities and Indigenous People

Environmental Sustainability •

Cross Cultural Management


Kalu, Kenneth, Oliver Okafor and Xiaohua Lin (2022), “Strengthening State Capacity in Africa: Implications from the Washington and Beijing Consensus”, Journal of Public Affairs,

Yang, Xiyan and Xiaohua Lin (2021), Overcoming Informal Barriers to Trade: Immigrant educational attainment vs. network competence, International Business Review,

Yang, Yanjiao, Farrell C, Xiaohua Lin (2021), Antecedents of Consumer Economic Nationalism: The Role of Need for Cognition and Cosmopolitanism, Journal of Global Marketing.>

Lin, Xiaohua, Akin Kocak and Alan Carsrud (2021), Contextualizing Entrepreneurial Intentions: Economic Dynamism and Culture in Multilayered Relationships. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship,

Yang, Yanjiao and Xiaohua Lin (2019), “­­Integrate or Not to Integrate: HRM Practice of Chinese Ban­­­­ks in Canada”, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 30 (14), 2186-2210.

Zhu, Qin, Ren-an Jia and Xiaohua Lin (2019), "Building Sustainable Circular Agriculture in China: Economic Viability and Entrepreneurship", Management Decision, 57 (4), 1108-1122.

Li, Jiaming and Xiaohua Lin (2017), “Assessing Credit Guarantee Companies in China: Applying a New Framework”, China Economic Review, 44, 98–111.

Lin, Xiaohua and Xiyan Yang (2017), “From Human Capital Externality to Entrepreneurial Aspiration: Effect of Migration Network on Trade”, Journal of World Business, 52 (3), 360–371.

Malhotra, Shavin, Xiaohua Lin and Carlyle Farrell (2016), “Cross-national Uncertainty and Level of Control in Cross-Border Acquisitions: A Comparison of Latin American and U.S. Multinationals”, Journal of Business Research, 69 (6), 1993-2004.

Lin, Xiaohua and Shavin Malhotra (2012), "To Adapt or Not to Adapt: The Moderating Effect of Perceived Similarity in Cross-Cultural Interaction", International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36 (1), 118-129.

Wang, Huiyao, David Zweig and Xiaohua Lin (2011), "Returnee Entrepreneurs: Impact on China’s Globalization Process", Journal for Contemporary China, 20 (70): 413-431.

Lin, Xiaohua (2010), “State versus Entrepreneurial MNCs from China: Initial Conceptualizations and Evidence”, International Marketing Review, 27 (3): 366-380.

Wang, Cheng Lu and Xiaohua Lin (2009), “Chinese Consumer Values: Cultural Tradition and Contemporary Renaissance”, Journal of Business Ethics, 88 (3): 399-409.

Lin, Xiaohua and Cheng Lu Wang (2008), “Enforcement and Performance: The Role of Ownership, Legalism and Trust in International Joint Ventures”, Journal of World Business, 43 (3), 340-351.

Lin, Xiaohua (2005), “Local Partner Acquisition of Managerial Knowledge in International Joint Ventures: Focusing on Foreign Management Control”, Management International Review, 45 (2): 219-237.

Wang, Chenglu, Xiaohua Lin, Allan K. K. Chan and Yizheng Shi (2005), “Conflict Handling Styles in International Joint Ventures: A Cross-Cultural and Cross-National Comparison”, Management International Review, 45 (1): 3-21.

Lin, Xiaohua and Richard Germain (2003), "Organizational Structure, Context, Customer Orientation, and Performance: Lessons from Chinese State-Owned Enterprises", Strategic Management Journal, 24 (11), 1131-1151.

Lin, Xiaohua and Steve Miller (2003), “Negotiation Approaches: Direct and Indirect Effect of National Culture”, International Marketing Review, 20 (3), 286-303.

Lin, Xiaohua and Richard Germain (2003), “Product Quality Orientation and Its Performance Implications in Chinese State-Owned Enterprises”, Journal of International Marketing, 11 (2), 59-77.

Lin, Xiaohua and Jian Guan (2002), “Patient Satisfaction and Referral Intension: Effects of Minority Experience, Patient-Physician Match on Ethnic Origin and Cultural Similarity”, Health Marketing Quarterly, 20 (2), 49-68.

Lin, Xiaohua and Richard Germain (1999), "Predicting International Joint Venture Interaction Frequency in U.S.-Chinese Ventures", Journal of International Marketing, 7 (2): 5-23.

Lin, Xiaohua and Richard Germain (1998), "Sustaining Satisfactory Joint Venture Relationships: The Role of Conflict Resolution Strategy", Journal of International Business Studies, 29 (1): 197-214.